Castiglion Fiorentino

Archaeological Museum at Castiglion Fiorentino

Castiglion Fiorentino


Strategically nestled on a hill (342 metres a.s.l.) overlooking the valley, on the ridge between the Valdichiana and the Tiber Valley, only a short distance from the main route between Arezzo and Chiusi, the town of Castiglion Fiorentino was first settled in Etruscan times (6th-5th century B.C.) and gradually grew into an important castrum in the Middle Ages. Dominated by the tall keep-tower (Torre del Cassero), the walled old-town has retained much of its medieval layout as well as remarkable remains of its Etruscan and Roman past. Ideally located on the border between Tuscany and Umbria, the town makes the perfect base for day-trips out to the main destinations in central Italy. While in town, tourists will have a chance to enjoy hearty local food and to purchase local hearts and crafts and organic produce.



Set in a commanding position overlooking the entire Valdichiana, the Cassero (castle keep) has retained its original features as well as much of its medieval charm. Its unique silhouette has become something of a landmark in the town as well as the very symbol of Castiglion Fiorentino. As far back as the 8th century b.C., the hillside was home to a hut village which, over the centuries, grew into an Etruscan oppidum with an acropolis surrounded by massive stone walls; here, in central position, stood the stunning 5th century Etruscan sanctuary whose remains were brought to light during extensive archaeological excavations. The current layout of the keep is the result of successive alterations and additions carried out since the 11th century, when the area became the site of a castle built to control the dense network of roads and tracks that criss-crossed the Valdichiana from a position far enough from the swampland and yet close enough to it to take advantage of its abundant fishery resources.


Officially opened in 2001, the museum houses a wide range of archaeological finds uncovered during excavations carried out since the late 1980s, enabling visitors to gain a unique insight into the history of Castiglion Fiorentino and its surroundings. In its five rooms, the museum takes visitors on a fascinating journey into the past of the ancient Etruscan village and its neighbouring settlements dating between the Iron Age and the 3rd-6th century A.D. Highlights of the collection include the votive deposits of Brolio and Montecchio, remains of the roofing from the Etruscan sancturay unearthed during excavations in the Cassero area as well as archaeological finds from the Etruscan site at Brolio Melmone, a production and trading centre along ancient river Clanis. Since 2008, the museum was extended to include a new section housing exhibits from the town’s medieval past, including a wide range of materials dating as far back as the 9th century as well as fine glazed-pottery from early medieval to Renaissance times.


The tour takes visitors on a fascinating underground journey of archaeological discovery through sites that, since the early 1980s, have been the subject of excavations suggesting an extraordinary continuity of settlement from the 8th century B.C. well into medieval times. Archaeological surveys brought to light a hut village from proto-historic times (8th-7th century b.C.), an Etruscan dwelling as well as the remains of an Etruscan sanctuary, built on a rectangular plan (17 m x 22 m) with a north to south orientation. The polychrome materials which originally adorned the roof of the sanctuary (reconstructed in the museum), can be dated to the 4th century b.C. The remains of two medieval towers can also be seen: one, from which only the base and part of the elevation are preserved, possibly only served a defensive purpose; the other, built on rock foundations with substantially-sized squared blocks, possibly dates to ancient times. In the 14th century, the existing structures were torn down and raised to the current level as sweeping urban renewal projects were undertaken under the patronage of bishop Tarlati and the ancient hilltop hamlet was turned into a fortress.

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Valdichiana Musei

The portal of culture in Val di Chiana.